Today, July 12, marks the death anniversary of one of our greatest Founding Fathers- Alexander Hamilton also known as Publius stemming from the duel with hated rival Aaron Burr. Alexander Hamilton played an integral role in our nation’s founding. He is an American icon and his legacy should be cherished for all the great things he did for the founding of our nation.
He was born in the Caribbean island of Nevia. He had a difficult upbringing as his mother had him with his father while technically being married to another man. His mother’s marriage was one that was steeped in confrontation as her husband had treated her very poorly, spending her fortune and imprisoning her for alleged but unfounded revelations of adultery. From the onset, her mother was the driving factor behind the marriage as the husband had presented himself in a deceiving manner. When she had the chance to escape, she did and met Alexander Hamilton’s father, James Hamilton. In addition to Alexander, she also had another son before him, named James Jr. At a young age, however, Hamilton’s father departed and his mother was left to care for him and his brother. She worked very hard to raise them with working a small business, but sadly succumbed to an illness two years after his father’s departure. The young Alexander Hamilton then took up work in a trading company where he was able to showcase his intellect and learn invaluable business skills that he would later use when being at the forefront of establishing our nation’s economic system. He left a strong impression on his employers and had a promising future ahead. In the Caribbean, the slave trade was active and the young Hamilton was a witness to the several atrocities it entailed with dehumanizing Africans that were imported. This left such a strong impression on him, he would later find himself as one of the Founding Fathers more open about his abolitionist leanings.
When a hurricane hit the island, he penned a letter to his estranged father that got the attention of the locals and was showcased in the local publication. He wrote so well, that he continued to gain support from several people on the island for his description of the hurricane. Many saw in him a bright future and helped him organize funds to study in America. It was believed that after he received his education, he would return and bring back his knowledge. During his time of study at King’s College in New York (what is now Columbia University), he continued writing on issues as the colonies were preparing for revolution. He eventually fought for the colonies when the war began and began to rise up the ranks, to eventually being one of George Washington’s most loyal military leaders.
After the war was over, he continued his studies and eventually was admitted to the New York bar and practiced for a time as an attorney. From his impressive connections he made during the Revolution with Washington among other Founding Fathers, he was tasked with helping to organize plans for the new government to be formed. He was a part of the Constitution ratification process. Among his notable contributions was his work as being one of the “Publius” writers for the Federalist Papers which defended the principles of the Constitution and provided a new vision for this new government.
The mission of our blog is found in Federalist 78 when he eloquently articulated the role of the judiciary. It is a timeless message:
“It may truly be said to have neither FORCE nor WILL, but merely judgment.”
When looking closely at Hamilton’s words here, we can contemplate that the tendency to exert “force” or “will” often occurs when judges move away from the Constitution and create their own biases on what the law should be rather than what the law is. By working within the Constitution and its boundaries judgment rather than will is exercised under an objective standard which is what Hamilton and the framers intended.
This is not the entirety of Hamilton’s contributions; however, he was also named George Washington’s First Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for helping create our economic and early banking system. The First Bank of the U.S. was established and created the early foundations for a stable economic and banking system. There were rivalries with other framers, however, as to the direction of the country. For example, Thomas Jefferson wanted more power given to state governments and a very weak federal government. Hamilton wanted a stronger federal government and sought a balance with manufacturing and industry rather than an agricultural concentration that Jefferson envisioned. While allowing the states to maintain their liberties and power was important, at this early stage there also needed to be a centralized federal government to help ensure the stability of the nation. This would allow the nation to collect revenue and maintain a solid national defense force.
On a more local note, Alexander Hamilton is buried at Trinity Church in downtown Manhattan. Tourists flock there often to pay respect to one of our greatest Founding Fathers. He also was instrumental in recognizing the advantage of the Great Falls in Paterson, New Jersey as providing a great advantage in developing industry. Textile mills and the cotton industry would soon begin to develop there. It is a National Historic Park and is a reminder of his great legacy.
Overall, the foresight of Hamilton was unparalleled. He was a brilliant intellectual and Founding Father. During the adversity of his early years, he certainly developed the skills to become one of the great American icons. This included working in the trading company to develop his economic skills and his love of books as a youth that helped make him a great writer and intellectual. He also dealt with tragedy that helped him forge the strength to persevere through the rigors of the Revolution. Hamilton embodied the mission that every American should hold dear today. No matter your origins, if you work hard you can make it here in some way, some form.
We owe Alexander Hamilton a debt of gratitude and encourage more Americans to be educated on his great legacy. He is more than just a figure on the $10 bill, he played a leading role in developing the system to provide us that $10 bill.
Let us not exile Publius, but rather celebrate his legacy and contributions to the nation we hold dear today………
This Supreme Court term offered many surprises to some with the outcome of various high-profile decisions ranging from issues related to immigration and DACA to gender discrimination and abortion rights to school choice with religious private schools. Chief Justice John Roberts for good or for bad- whichever side you take exerted his influence in a breakout term for him. With the retirement of Justice Kennedy and Kennedy’s replacement by Justice Kavanaugh, the Chief has found himself in a unique position as the “Chief” swing vote on several major cases. In this term, he positioned himself in the more liberal camp for much of these opinions, thus drawing the ire of several conservatives. Justice Kavanaugh, who many thought would be voting in lock-step with the Chief based on their similar background of jurisprudence found himself on the opposite side of the Chief in several of the opinions, often aligning himself with Justice Thomas, Justice Alito and most of the time Justice Gorsuch. It will be interesting to note how this line of jurisprudence continues to develop in the coming years. We will cover Justice Kavanaugh this term in a future piece.
As we have discussed in prior pieces, however, the way Roberts has handled this term is not entirely surprising when it is considered that this is an election year and he seems to want to take the Court out of a controversial spotlight with several culturally charged issues. While it is easy to disagree with his present view, one could foresee the Court being aggressive next year with major cases when the atmosphere will likely be less charged. Roberts has presented himself as a judicial gradualist, not in the same vein as his predecessor and former boss, the late Chief Justice Rehnquist who was more inclined to tackle tough points, despite the societal landscape.
In this piece we will discuss Roberts in Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue, with regard to the school choice for religions private schools and June Medical Services v. Russo case with regards to the abortion issue.
Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue
We have discussed this matter in our April piece in anticipation of the Supreme Court’s decision. By way of summary, it concerned a state tax credit law passed in Montana that offered credit to companies and individuals that donate to private school scholarship funds. There are several private schools in Montana that are classified as religious and would have benefited from the program. The Montana Supreme Court ruled the scholarship aid program unconstitutional per the Montana state constitution because there was an opportunity for direct or indirect funding to religious schools. This archaic provision in the Montana state constitution originated from the Blaine Amendments passed in the late 1800s in various states that sought to restrict the influence of Catholic educational opportunities that were beginning to develop.
The U.S. Supreme Court, in a 5-4 vote authored by Chief Justice Roberts found that the Montana Constitution’s no-aid provision to religious private schools was unconstitutional and in violation of the Free Exercise Clause.
He made reference to the recent Supreme Court case, Trinity Lutheran v. Comer that held “disqualifying otherwise eligible recipients from a public benefit “solely because of their religious character” imposes “a penalty on the free exercise of religion that triggers the most exacting scrutiny. In that matter the Supreme Court ruled it was valid for the state to provide funds for tire pieces at a religious school’s playground, a Missouri law there had previously prevented funds from being provided to religious educational institutions for such a function. The Supreme Court there found the actions discriminatory. He compared that case to the Montana case by articulating that the Church was treated in a discriminatory manner just by its nature and status and was thus subject to strict scrutiny. The government failed to meet its burden and the Montana decision was invalidated.
Roberts later proceeded to discuss the history and tradition of various examples of states and the federal government providing grants to religious based private schools. On the opposing end, he also was careful to highlight that the Blaine Amendments had served an anti-Catholic purpose and were rooted in bigotry and should not be considered as supportive sources for Free Exercise claims.
When assessing Roberts’ opinion here, he showcases his gradualist approach, in the context of law and religion jurisprudence. He built off the model set forth in Trinity Lutheran a few years prior to reaffirm that religious private schools are also entitled to protection and support under the Constitution. While there are other areas in which the Roberts Court may have disappointed, religious freedom remains as one of its strengths. Moving forward, expect more religious claims to be brought that look to reaffirm our early Constitutional understandings of the relationship between religion and government.
June Medical Services v. Russo
The issue of abortion has unleashed a flurry of controversy since the Roe v. Wade decision that legalized abortion in 1973. As discussed in prior pieces, this decision removed a historically state regulated issue and placed it in the hands of the judiciary and since that point, the Supreme Court has found it very difficult to shed the political spotlight. With passion on both sides of the issue, it has become defining in Supreme Court confirmation hearings since the days of Robert Bork to Brett Kavanaugh. When a case arises such as the one here that even gently touches on the issue, it creates a national following. Chief Justice Roberts’ decision here baffled many with him taking the seemingly opposing side a few years prior on a similar case, but as you will see in this decision Roberts’ reliance on stare decisis (offering strong leeway to prior decisions) was a deciding factor. Some have commented that on its merits, Roberts does not accept invalidating the law at issue, but in fact he has taken a position to shield the Court from further societal charged pressure in an election year.
The central issue in June Medical Services is the admitting privileges of doctors at hospitals when there are emergency abortion complications. The Louisiana law that was challenged had required in relevant part that: any doctor who performs abortions to hold “active admitting privileges at a hospital . . . located not further than thirty miles from the location at which the abortion is performed or induced,” and defines “active admitting privileges” as being “a member in good standing” of the hospital’s “medical staff . . . with the ability to admit a patient and to provide diagnostic and surgical services to such patient.”
The clinics at issue argued that the law was unconstitutional because among other things that it imposed an undue burden on the rights of the patient to obtain an abortion. The medical provider was thereby attempting to assert Constitutional rights in the stead of the individual. In a 5-4 decision, the Supreme Court ruled to invalidate the Louisiana law. Roberts joined the 4 liberal judges, but his reasoning diverged from their opinions.
In Judge Breyer’s majority opinion, he relied on Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstadt and Planned Parenthood v. Casey in assessing the undue burden that would be placed on women seeking an abortion based on this law. He found that the providers could assert rights on behalf of the women and was not convinced that admitting privileges bear any relevance to better outcomes for the women that would justify the law. The law hampered the ability of the abortion doctors to provide their services.
Most specifically, in Whole Woman’s Health, which the Court addressed in 2016 with Justice Kennedy still on the Court, the Court there found in relevant part that: the admitting-privileges requirement in a Texas law placed a substantial obstacle in the path of women seeking a previability abortion, constituted an undue burden on abortion access, and thus violate the Constitution. This was also a 5-4 decision with Justice Breyer again writing the majority decision, but the Chief Justice dissenting.
Chief Justice Roberts concedes in his concurring opinion in June Medical Services that he stands by his dissent in Whole Woman’s Health and believes the case was wrongly decided, but affirms the outcome of that decision on stare decisis grounds and adherence to precedent. He states that: “the legal doctrine of stare decisis requires us, absent special circumstances, to treat like cases alike. The Louisiana law imposes a burden on access to abortion just as severe as that imposed by the Texas law, for the same reasons. Therefore, Louisiana’s law cannot stand under our precedents.”
He also spends considerable time in his concurring opinion reflecting on the Casey decision and the concept of a “substantial obstacle” in obtaining an abortion. He also acknowledges that the undue burden standard that was embraced in Casey and cited in Whole Woman’s Health should be respected. In an even further revealing statement he articulated he would further adhere to the Casey holding that required finding a substantial obstacle before striking down an abortion regulation. Clearly, the Chief has shown his sympathy with the legal outcomes and effect of the prevailing major cases in abortion jurisprudence despite whatever personal reservations he may have. This does not bode well for those who consider some of the major opinions vulnerable.
There is much to criticize about this opinion. Most importantly, however, the stare decisis reliance as the central form of support for reaching the opposite outcome than he had a few years prior is troubling. Justice Thomas, in his dissent sufficiently critiques this reasoning. After providing a very thorough challenge to the third-party rights issue in the matter and critical commentary on the substance of abortion litigation to date, he proceeds into the stare decisis critique. He cites to one of his earlier decisions and reemphasizes that when our prior decisions clearly conflict with the text of the Constitution, we are required to “privilege [the] text over our own precedents.” From his view, Roe does not have a Constitutional foundation, thus reliance on the abortion right itself is faulty. He even went so far as to challenge the right to privacy jurisprudence stemming from Griswold v. Connecticut that eventually was a factor in the Roe opinion. Justice Thomas then cites recent cases in which Chief Justice Roberts, himself, has been a factor in overturning precedent. He further explains that the lack of uniformity on how the Court has interpreted abortion rights jurisprudence with pluralities and divisions in several cases diminishes the merit of any stare decisis analysis. The law is far from settled.
When all the above is considered, from the outsider it seems that the Chief used legally lite support to harmonize how he came to opposite conclusions in June Medical Services and Whole Woman’s Health. To address that stare decisis should be a primary source in interpreting the law “albeit special circumstances”, Roberts finds himself in a quandary. He does not proceed further to elaborate what constitutes such a circumstance and how his decisions to overturn precedent in other recent matters differ from the standard employed here.
In sum, Chief Justice Roberts has proven himself to embrace institutionalism during his tenure on the Supreme Court. While we recognize that society has been charged with controversy in recent years and arguably for an extended period of time with the abortion issue among others, it does not mean that we must abandon our Constitutional principles. The threat of court packing and radicalization from politicians with their targets focused on the Supreme Court is very real. Some have been willing to go to the extent of mainstreaming lies about prospective Court appointees to destroy life reputations. Others have threatened impeachment if a judge does not follow their view of the Constitution. While the position of the Chief Justice is not an easy one with the Court being in the cross-hairs, one cannot help but consider that part of this is the Supreme Court’s own doing- past generations of the Court willing to embrace a legislative role to reflect the supposed social agenda circulating at that point in history. This is not what the framers envisioned when they considered the role of the Supreme Court. What better way to remedy the mistakes of prior generations of the Court than taking a stand for the Constitution? In the short-term there will be an outcry, but the reward is worth it and will in fact be a step in the right direction of de-politicizing the Court.
As Publius described the role of the judiciary in Federalist 78, “It may truly be said to have neither FORCE nor WILL, but merely judgment”. In good judgment, Chief, embrace the Constitution. This country is depending on you. Leave the force and will to address societal needs to the elected branches of government.
Andrew McClary was one of the early great leaders in the American Revolution and his patriotic sacrifice should be taught and appreciated today. By way of background, he grew up in an immigrant Irish family in New Hampshire and eventually worked his way up the rungs of the New Hampshire colonial society and became a … Continue reading American Heroes in Spotlight: Andrew McClary and Bunker Hill
By: Chris Gomez The Commerce Clause was the product of ingenious foresight by our Founding Fathers to create an ability for the federal government to be the arbiter of interstate and foreign trade. As an enumerated power in Article 1, Congress was granted these powers. As our nation has developed, however, the judiciary has upheld … Continue reading Expansive Government in Commerce Clause History
“Breyer retire!” The monopoly of the progressive movement in the mainstream media has greatly harmed the understanding of Constitutional principles in our society. The “Breyer retire” craze is fueled by an unhealthy alliance of politics and an ignorance towards one of the essential fabrics of our Constitutional system. While Justice Stephen Breyer, a President Bill Clinton … Continue reading “Anti-Trust” of the Constitution